Part 4: What’s the problem, anyway?

All scientists, researchers and engineers should skip this article

Today, most of the world’s leaders (not You Know Who) acknowledge climate change’s threat and have committed billions of dollars to research new sustainable energy technologies or scale existing sustainable solutions (e.g., wind and solar). Unfortunately, much – if not most – of this investment will be under-utilized because there is no mechanism that can efficiently get new technology solutions out of research labs into the market on a global basis. This has created a global innovation gap between technology and the markets that desperately need its benefits today.

The Innovation Gap

There is no coordinated, efficient, comprehensive way of bridging this gap today – it’s all ad hoc with loosely connected efforts. Incubators, or other innovation centers, are most often regionally focused with sporadic connections to other parts of the world. Existing “networks” are usually only skin deep and concentrate on periodic convening events.

Don’t look to the national labs or the research universities to bridge this gap, because they have a “Not my job!” attitude when it comes to commercialization. Researchers are not incentivized to focus on the application of their invention and frankly most of them don’t have the skills to build businesses quickly.  Despite what happens behind their lab doors, most universities aren’t flexible, fast-paced, and creative enough.

Why isn’t it the role of the private sector – specifically the venture capital and start up communities on the Left and Right Coasts — to bridge this gap?   Well yes and no. Capital – especially venture capital – flows to the use with the best return in the quickest amount of time, which is not impact technology. We bend metal, build products, do chemistry. The average impact technology exit for a VC fund is 10+ years vs. 7+ years in the App and Mobile worlds.   Hence, most VC money – and their well-developed support systems – has moved downstream on the impact technology market.  As a result, the “flow” of risk investment capital to early stage clean technology entrepreneurs is best described as a trickle.

But the lack of money isn’t the only thing that’s causing in the innovation gap. Where are the entrepreneur assistance programs that cover the full range of cleantech start up issues needed to grow a clean technology company? There are some stand-out examples – Greentown Labs in Boston, the Austin Technology Incubator come to mind – but not many and certainly not around the world.

The kind of “ecosystems” that are needed are very different from those that support for the digital and media technologies.  Condensed programs aimed at getting an investment in a couple of months’ time just don’t work for chemistry or hardware based technology companies.  We need longer incubation, we need pilot programs with large customers or government agencies, we need help in scaling up manufacturing, expertise in developing a distribution network, a supply chain, etc., etc. The number of organizations that attempt this kind of assistance can be measured on two hands.

An ecosystem of ecosystems

We need to connect scientists with entrepreneurs with investors, with customers, with policy makers in 40+ countries. (yes, you read that right – 40. More on that later). At its core, our envisioned network is a collaboration of entrepreneurs and other innovators driven by a common mission to slow climate change and build economic wealth at the same time. Globally. In real time. At scale.

We are already working on this and have made significant progress in the last 24 months with supporters in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Finland, India, China, and Japan. This is just a start – significant for sure – but we know the road before us will be challenge.

We’re looking for the few who have the guts to tackle the earth’s biggest problems by building the world’s greatest impact technology companies. And, we don’t care about your age, gender, sexual preference, religion, or race or whatever else might make you special.

If you want to help build this network, then I want to talk to you. Anytime. fred@fhwii.com

 

Part 3: Late to the Climate Change Game

Can a Newbie make a contribution?

I’ve come late to the earth-is-in-danger party. While I started thinking about clean technologies in 2008, I looked at it as a great business opportunity that could also bring much needed economic development. My mantra was: “Let’s take advantage of this huge business opportunity and diminish our dependence on fossil fuels from parts of the world that don’t like us.” I didn’t look beyond the business side of it.

That was turned upside down on my first trip to China. Beijing’s smog was at a level I’d never seen before, at a scale that was hard to imagine. Then I went to Shanghai. Singapore. Seoul. Delhi. Mumbai. It was the same everywhere in Asia. Like most people, I equated pollution with GHG’s (green house gases) because we can see how smog is making the atmosphere worse. The unfortunate truth is that where there is one, there is usually the other. Even on this most basic level, how could we not think what was happening in Asia wasn’t going to impact us in the United States?

My first trip to Africa taught me something else about climate change – its impact on the poor. Women and children in Ethiopian villages still spend much of their time walking to and from the village water well to fill buckets. And they literally farm their lands with the same type of tools we were using in the 1600’s. Ethiopia is not unique, like much of Africa, they farm with basic hand-made tools, partially because they don’t have access to cheap energy. Today, more than 500 million people in Africa alone still don’t have access to electricity.

These are the same people that suffer first and hardest from the effects of climate change. Storms. Draught. Flooding. These weather events are literally life-threatening. There’s no backup plan because they can’t afford Plan A, let along Plan B. The World Bank predicts that more than 100 million people will be thrust into poverty from climate change by 2030.

I’ve seen first-hand how a little bit of technology can change people’s lives. A 20-watt solar panel held on a thatched roof by some wire enables a family in Peru to do homework at night, to read at night, to listen to a radio. Electricity literally changes lives. And it changes our lives as well, since this family isn’t burning kerosene lamps that contribute to GHGs. These same micro sustainable technologies are beginning to be implemented in Kenya and Ethiopia and throughout Sub-Sahara Africa.

My “Aha!’ moment came when I connected these dots: there are two sides to climate change – the climate side and the economic side. IF we can help entrepreneurs get their sustainable technology products/technologies to the markets most in need, then we could fight climate change and poverty at the same time!

In the past 20 years, 4.2 billion people have been affected by weather- related disasters, including significant loss of lives. Developing countries are the most affected by climate impacts. (The World Economic and Social Survey 2016).

Poor people and poor countries are exposed and vulnerable to all types of climate-related shocks – natural disasters that destroy assets and livelihoods; waterborne diseases and pests that become more prevalent during heat waves, floods, or droughts; crop failure from reduced rainfall; and spikes in food prices that follow extreme weather events. (“Shockwaves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty”, 2016).

Impoverished communities tend to be more dependent on climate-sensitive sectors and natural resources for survival, so climate change poses an extreme threat on the livelihood, food security, and health of the poor; women are particularly vulnerable (The Science of Adaptation; a Framework for Assessment, Mitigation, and Adaptation).

In Africa today, more than 500 million people live without electricity. Without effective climate action, 100 million more people will live in extreme poverty by 2030. (Shockwaves, 2016)

Here’s a radical thought: climate change isn’t going to be solved only by scientists and engineers.   In fact, if you’re a scientist or engineer, its best that you don’t read the next part of the story.

Part 2: In Search of Entrepreneurs

The entrepreneurial spirit is alive and well in lots of unexpected places. Ecosystems that help those entrepreneurs? Not so much.

In most countries, I’d be in jail or minimally be an outcast from my family and friends because I’ve lost other people’s money while trying to start a company. Aside from societal punishment, failing at being an “entrepreneur” is gut-wrenchingLaying off people who’ve bet their future on you is one of the worst things in life. I’ve tried to build eleven companies and countless other things. None of them were “Unicorns,” but of the eleven, seven got off the ground, six got market traction, five made a bit of money, and one made a lot of money. And the jury is still out on one of them. Running hard at something is a lot of fun, and it’s pretty addictive.

I got a little carried away in Singapore trying to map out what a cleantech ecosystem looks like. She didn’t get it either:)

I’ve spent a good part of the last six years looking for bright entrepreneurs who we could help. At first, it was in all the usual places: Los Angeles, the Bay Area, Chicago, Seattle, Dallas, Boston, Houston, DC and lots more. Then I went to China, India, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Italy, Germany, Ethiopia, UAE, Mexico and Egypt among others. In each instance, I went looking for entrepreneurs and organizations committed to helping them build sustainable businesses. As a result, about 40% of the companies that LACI has helped have been from outside Los Angeles.

I didn’t expect to find much in places like Ethiopia or Morocco. I was mainly looking for business opportunities for Los Angeles companies, not expecting to find much in the way of home-grown talent. I was surprised at most every stop — the fact is that entrepreneurs aren’t just born in California or Boston or NY, but in pretty much every corner of the world.

These are bright young people looking to build companies to support themselves and create products that will help their countries. In India, I came across a poster in one of its most prominent universities that was a take-off on the UK WWII “Keep Calm” posters that says it all: “Keep Calm and Hire Yourself

The Girls Can Code club in Addis Abba. You can’t leave a group like this without thinking there’s hope for this world, afterall.

Spend a couple of hours with the Girls Can Code (left) club in Addis Abba and its impossible not to be excited for our collective future.  Or the young woman architect who’s designed simple, scaleable homes with a material that is in plentiful supply in Africa: plastic coke bottles. I met an English entrepreneur at the “Rise Up” entrepreneurial conference in Cairo that had an off-the-grid solar energy pack for Kenyan farmers for less than 50 cents a day! Very very cool.

Finding effective support systems to help these entrepreneurs around the world is a much more difficult task. Having the desire to start a company is one thing. Being willing to take the risk is essential, of course. But what about having the confidence to take the step? About even knowing what the first step is? Getting help, encouragement and practical advice is in very short supply anyplace outside the First World.

Many countries just don’t know what it takes either. Their policies restrict capital and/or just starting a business They have no history of successful company-building, hence they have no successful mentors to help the next generation. Failure/bankruptcy can land you in jail. Literally.

This is where the U.S.’s leadership is most apparent. We have the culture, the experience, the knowledge, and the support systems to assist entrepreneurs in making great companies. Yet, most of the time this knowledge just doesn’t get through to the developing countries that need it.

Why?

I’m really not picking on this fine cleantech organization in Malaysia. It’s just that, well…

IMHO, its mainly because the NGO organizations that offer this type of help aren’t very entrepreneurial. Their staff is well-meaning, highly intelligent, but taking a class in entrepreneurship and being an expert on “competitiveness” doesn’t mean you know how to be an entrepreneur.

So, what happens in these countries when entrepreneurs have no supporting ecosystem? These countries are forced to buy innovation from others since they can’t develop it on their own. They buy it from China or Germany or the UK or the US or Israel or Finland. This helps their country insofar as they get new sustainable technologies that address key problems (energy, food, water, waste).

Unfortunately, they along the way they under nourish their home-grown entrepreneurs, perpetuating the big-corporations-selling-into-the-emerging-markets cycle that is so dominant in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In other words, it doesn’t help them build a domestic supply chain, nor the entrepreneurs to supply it, that can lift them out of poverty.

And here’s why this is important to you and me. Without entrepreneurial ecosystems to get new inventions into the market in every corner of the globe, we won’t slow climate change fast enough to save our planet. The data is pretty clear: the whole world is polluting and generating GHGs and the whole world needs to slow itself down.

This just looks like the UN, its the GE “Global Customer Summit” in Crotonville, NY. GE operates in 100+ countries with 300,000+ employees.

“Why not let GE or Siemens or SAP or any of dozens of global companies solve the world’s problems?” you might be asking. After all, they’re the ones with the might, the knowledge, the connections, the scale to tackle these huge problems. Yes, but they’re also slow moving, incredibly expensive, risk adverse and politically attached.

We need to move fast. We need to move boldly. We need to fail fast and invent a better solution. Now!

So, I ask you this: What would happen if we built a global entrepreneurial ecosystem dedicated to impact technologies?  My answer: We would fight climate change. Reduce poverty. And help entrepreneurs develop around the world.

All in one fell swoop.

Part 3 of this series looks at the connection between climate change and poverty. And it asks a basic question: can entrepreneurs – not climate scientists – slow climate change?

Part 1: The Journey

 

Three Ethiopian farmers carrying hay from their village

 

From the Garage to Around the Globe and Back Again

La Paz during Carnivale

One Sunday morning in March of 2011, I was recovering from a night of partying in La Paz Bolivia. The Bolivian’s throw a pretty wicked Carnival. Karen (my wife) and I could never resist a good party, especially a street party in a new city. We’d spent the winter in South America riding our motorcycle. I felt we were just getting started on our m/c journey, while Karen felt it was about time to call it quits.  Then the phone rang and everything changed.

Jim called to ask if I was interested in starting up a new incubator in Los Angeles focused on clean technologies. Jim was a consultant to the City of Los Angeles, preparing the RFP seeking candidates to lead the project, and he was pretty persuasive that I should apply. Three weeks later I was in LA, interviewing for the job.  In June 2011 my partner, Neal Anderson, and I got the contract to build a cleantech incubator for Los Angeles.  I would become CEO and Neal would be COO.

Three weeks later I was standing in a gutted 2000 sq. ft. bus repair garage, wondering one thing — how could this empty building become anything? Frankly, few people believed that we could/should build a business incubator dedicated to clean technologies in Los Angeles. Most thought the concept of LACI wouldn’t amount to much. What was cleantech? What was an incubator? Why should the City spend its money on this with all its other problems? I went through 1,500 business cards that first year trying to answer those questions and many more.

We sold our house in the Hollywood Hills and moved three blocks away from LACI. We needed to be all in if this was going to work. Not because I wanted to make a lot of money, but because I thought it was the right thing to do, that it would help the citizens of Los Angeles, and primarily the citizens of Boyle Heights, East LA, Lincoln Heights, and South Central. It was my way of giving back.

Selling the vision, 2012.

Over the past six years the team at LACI has figured out how to create an ecosystem that helps entrepreneurs make their ideas a reality. I’ve seen the power that creating a nourishing environment and providing practical support can have on the entrepreneur, on the community, on the country, and on students. We’ve helped build these “things” for the City of Los Angeles, the City of Fremont, Mexico City, the State of Washington, CSUN, the Port, and Ethiopia.

Here’s a touch of background on LACI for those of you who don’t know much about it and want to. The Los Angeles Cleantech Incubator brings together capital, universities, research, government support, entrepreneurs, corporate partners, and business leaders to drive innovation throughout the regional, state, and (now) global economy. LACI has helped 100+ companies raise $135M+, create 1,500+ jobs, and delivered more than $340M in long term economic value for the City of Los Angeles. As a result, LACI has ranked in the UBI Global’s coveted “Global Top 10” in 2014, 2015 and 2016.  LACI was also selected as the Department of Energy’s clean energy incubator for the State of California and the California Energy Commission’s manager of its Southern California Clean Energy Innovation Cluster.

Delivering the vision, 2016

In December 2015 LACI moved into the 60,000 sq. ft. state-of-the-art La Kretz Innovation Campus which houses all of LACI’s Portfolio Companies as well as providing chemistry and electronics labs and prototyping center. LACI is the only incubator that is housed in the same facility as the R&D department of a major utility (the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power).

Building LACI has been the most rewarding work of my life. I’ve learned a lot about government, how to grow economies, what cleantech entrepreneurs need, and what I’m good at (and what I’m not). Building a complex entrepreneurial support system is part hard work, part smarts, and a whole lot of “magic.” How do you get all the pieces to click? I’ve spent six years figuring that out.

Now it’s time for my “Next Big Thing”.

Strangely enough, I first glimpsed my future when visiting one of the oldest places on earth – the Cradle of Civilization.  Frankly, visiting Ethiopia was pretty much a shock to the system. It’s a country where women spend the majority of their day getting water and preparing food, while the men and boys farm with truly ancient farm tools. How could this ancient, backward country represent the future of cleantech?  Well that’s for Part 2 of this story.

A village well in the Moroccan countryside

then

Karen with two customers in an Ethiopian brew pub just outside Addis Ababa. One sip was enough:)

I’m writing this from a hotel room in Southampton, UK, awaiting a taxi to Heathrow and the flight(s) home after 46 days on the road.  How do I wrap this trip up?  As with most of our trips, this has been a trip of extremes, but in some ways it feels extremely extreme:)  We’ve been in the lap of luxury and in the very definition of poverty.  We’ve laid around and did almost nothing and dragged our bags/bike/whatever across more airports, ferry stations, bus stations, and city-scapes than I can remember.  We’ve been in mountains, desert, seaside, countryside, modern and ancient cities.  On planes, ferries, buses, cars, taxis, and a motorcycle — more than once each time.  We’ve gotten drunk on a beach and had a lunch hosted in our honor at the U.S. Ambassador’s residence in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (the capital of Ethiopia).  We’ve been hot, cold, dry and wet, often in the same day.  We never knew the language of the country we were in, but somehow found ways to connect with the people there.

Maybe the best way is to go to the stats:

Trip Stats & Awards

  • Countries:  UK, Spain, Morocco, Ethiopia
  • Cities visited:  best guess is 21
  • Miles on a motorcycle:  2975
  • Overall miles: My guess is 20,000
  • Plane legs: 11 including prop planes landing on unpaved runways
  • Ferries: 4
  • Speeches made in Ethiopia:  24
  • Press interviews:  4
  • Ethiopian Officials met with:  Mayor of Addis, Minister of Water, Irrigation & Electricity, State Ministers of Industry, Science & Technology, Small & Medium Business, Investment and Urban Development
  • Least Friendly Awardee:  Any airport employee at Charles DeGualle airport with a special shout out to Air France employees
  • Most Accommodating New Friends:  Maureen and Miguel in Madrid who single-highhandedly made our trip to/from Madrid and Ethiopia painless and quite enjoyable
  • Best Beach Town and Beach:  Tarifa and Bolonia, both on the tip of Spain
  • Number of Motorcycle Problems: 0:))

The Beaches of Southern Spain

After five days in Morocco, getting back to the “civilization” of Southern Spain was needed.  A couple of weeks earlier a bartender in Granada had told us to go to a little-known beach named Bolonia on the southern coast.  He assured us it was worth it, but it wasn’t on any map or in the GPS.  As luck would have it, we found Bolonia and it IS one of the best beaches we’ve ever been on.  It was so great, we spent three nights there just hang’n at the beach and prepping for Ethiopia.  We met some folks there from the UK and had a great time partying Spanish style. It’s one of those places I could of hung for much longer, but we needed to get to Madrid.

Getting to Madrid

After Morocco, we needed to weave our way towards Madrid to catch the plane to Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).  We skipped Seville and spent some terrific nights in Cordoba and Toledo.  Both towns were in the midst of festivals and such, so in the space of a couple of nights we went to a rock & roll concert, an equestrian show, a flamingo dance show, and a couple of tours of old churches thrown in.  Each night was filled with something old and new.

Madrid

Before our trip, someone told us to skip Madrid as it was “just another big city”.  Well, our time in Madrid was terrific, mainly because we met Maureen and Miguel there.  Long story short, Maureen is a friend of Sam H.’s and she agreed to be our Logistics Command Center.  We left the bike and all our m/c clothes and gear with her, which made the entire Ethiopia leg possible.  More importantly, we had a couple of great nights out with them and thoroughly enjoyed the city.  I was even getting use to eating dinner at 10PM!  Madrid has a vibrant night life, which was a nice contrast to Morocco before and after Ethiopia.  Both KR and I could live there.

Ethiopia

IMG_20160615_160125There is no way on earth that I can describe Ethiopia to you.  This was our first trip to Africa (Morocco doesn’t count) and we didn’t know what to expect.  My purpose in going was to give a lot of speeches and take a lot of meetings extolling the business opportunity that clean technologies represent for Ethiopia and Sub-Sahara Africa.

Development wise, Ethiopia makes India look like a fully developed paradise.  There is little infrastructure, even in its capital City, Addis Ababa.  Side walks? rare.  Electricity? 10 million people have been on a waiting list to get electricity for ten years.  Water?  They’re in a much worse drought than California.  Traffic?  Yes and its made up of cars, buses, cows, people, m/c’s, bicycles and tuk tuks.  With few traffic signals, no street signs and no addresses.  Modern buildings?  Well, yes and no.  There are dozens and dozens of new building part way finished (in Ethiopia, you build the basic structure, put a bank on the first floor, and hope you generate enough profits from the bank to finish the building.)  Yet none of them look new.

Aside from all of that, Ethiopia is a lovely country.  The people, despite their relative poverty, are generally a happy/smiling lot.  They are as honest as the day is long.  They’re colorful and energetic.  Addis is a dirty hub bub of a city, but there’s a lot of action.  The young people that I spoke to,  were bright, energetic, hopeful and determined to make things better.  The government officials seemed genuinely interested in making things better for their citizens.

I was only able to experience a tiny bit of Addis as most of my days consisted of getting driven around to various meetings in an Embassy car.  That’s literally how I saw Addis – through the windows of lots of Toyota Land Cruisers.

Over the weekend,  Karen and I took a plane to northern Ethiopia to see the “real” Ethiopia, which is the cradle of civilization.  The remains of the oldest human being was discovered in Ethiopia and dates back millions of years.  We went to Lalibela, a village in northern Ethiopia that has 12 churches carved into granite mountains, each church from a single piece of stone.  Took 14,000 people about 100+ years BC to build.

Ninety percent of the people outside the cities are subsistence farmers.  They farm the way their ancestors did — by hand and with donkeys.  Their key assets are goats and cows, live in grass/mud huts, with no running water.  With a few exceptions, of course:  cell phones and satellite dishes:)

It does beg the question:  how did one of the oldest civilizations on earth not develop further and faster?  What happened?

Damn if I know.

Both Karen and I would go back, and probably will because of business.  Now that we’ve had our first taste of Africa, we’re curious about the rest.  That’s for another day and time.

A Couple of Final Thoughts

  • If you’re going to Spain, go in May before everyone gets there. It only rained about a week out of five and was otherwise beautiful.
  • Maybe as a result of the above, Spain was incredibly cheap compared to the US, UK, France, Swiss, etc.  It was easy to find a decent hotel for less than 100 Euros.
  • Stay off the main Autopista’s and take the back roads.  Once we did that, we saw a wonderful countryside of small villages, rolling hills, and a few mountains.  The m/c riding is better that way, too.
  • If you take the ferry from the UK to Spain or France, spend the extra bucks for a room or mini suite.  It was lovely and a nice way of spending 24 hours.
  • BMW 1200 GS’s rule!  Long live Now Voyager II.

Here’s what everything looked like.

Take care, fred

SPAIN

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One of the most welcome sights on this trip:  KR bringing us drinks in Bolonia

then

Tim and I are engaged in “lunch” Spanish style. That would be a couple bottles of wine, a couple of beers, two or three different kinds of pig, and a couple of tapas. Lunch goes from 12:30-4:30 in Bolonia. Then back to the room for a nap and ready to go by 7:)

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Bolonia was a great place to write the Ethiopian speeches

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Cows and horse roamed the Balonia beach

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Happy camper

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Versatile work horse:  NV II as clothes line

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Bolonia beach

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Rock concert in Toledo

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Maureen and Miguel in Madrid.  And I was just getting use to eating at 10PM

ETHIOPIA – ADDIS ABABA

Addis Ababa University Lecture 4

“Lecture” at Addis Ababa University

Girls Can Code 4

Meeting the “Girls can Code” group

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Speaking to the AmCham Steering Committee

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Getting out of the car at the Ethiopian Investment Ministry. Notice the “side walk”:)

then

The information booth at the “American Center.” No kidding:)

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“Principles of Ethical Behavior” posted outside a minister’s office. While certainly needed in much of Africa, we could probably remind ourselves of these as well

Holding up the poster advertising my lecture at Addis Ababa  University

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Tanya and Yemi, from the U.S. Embassy, took great care of us.

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The Palace.  We stayed at the Sheraton Palace, by far the most luxurious hotel in Ethiopia.  The Sheraton’s lobby was the ad hoc meeting central for all International business meetings.

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Addis street

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The “shopping center” that the U.S. Embassy recommended Karen shop at.

then

Shopkeeper. He’s probably smiling because KR bought something.

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My normal view of Addis– through the windows of an Embassy car

THE “SUBURBS” OF ADDIS ABABA

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Karen got a chance to get outside Addis in the countryside

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Karen insisted on meeting real people, so her tour guide knocked on a door of a random house.  K.aren spent a couple hours with a woman and her 19 children

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Their kitchen with the oven on the floor.

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A bedroom

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Mom making afternoon tea

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Some of her children, who brought

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home an English test they took that day.

 

THE FAR NORTH OF ETHIOPIA

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Two of my least favorite things:  prop planes and gravel runways.  We land way up north in Lalibela.

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Three men carrying hay for their animals.  When we caught up to them, they were easily a mile from town and almost race walking.

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House in Lalibela

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Lalibela is famous for 11 churches carved into the mountain, each from a singular piece of granite.  Built between 1000 BC and 600AD when Ethiopia was a large Christian empire spanning the Horn of Africa and much of Arabia.

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This is church #2, or is it 4….

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A visitor praying in one of the churches

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Each church as a resident priest.  For a pennies, you can get a picture with the priest

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Our guide took us to the Saturday market.  We started walking down this path, which had a lot of traffic.

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We rounded a corner and came upon this;  hundreds of people and their animals in the market.

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We of course waded right through the middle of the crowd.  Unbelievable.

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It was a very competitive marketplace with lots of people offering goats, cattle, donkeys and everything in between.   Not knowing a good goat from a bad goat, I wonder how one picked one over the other:)

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Spices

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Tools, knives and plow heads

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Stall after stall of grains, teas, spices, coffee, et al.

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Back to the Sheraton, and a toast among the crew to a great trip.

THE FINAL LEG HOME

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Back home on NVII on our way from Madrid to Santander on the northern coast.  We had one more great day of riding.

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We kept off the main roads and came across lots of villages like this

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Awaiting loading on the ferry back to Portsmouth

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One of my better decisions was to get a mini suite on the Mini Queen Mary. A great way of spending 24 hours.

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Back at Southampton and NVII is ready to be loaded on the ship back home.  NV II is one great motorcycle.

Until the next time.